# JavaScript Arithmetic

## JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators perform arithmetic on numbers (literals or variables).

Operator Description
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
** Exponentiation (ES6)
/ Division
% Modulus (Remainder)
++ Increment
-- Decrement

## Arithmetic Operations

A typical arithmetic operation operates on two numbers.

The two numbers can be literals:

### Example

var x = 100 + 50;
Try it Yourself »

or variables:

### Example

var x = a + b;
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or expressions:

### Example

var x = (100 + 50) * a;
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## Operators and Operands

The numbers (in an arithmetic operation) are called operands.

The operation (to be performed between the two operands) is defined by an operator.

Operand Operator Operand
100 + 50

The addition operator (`+`) adds numbers:

### Example

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x + y;
Try it Yourself »

## Subtracting

The subtraction operator (`-`) subtracts numbers.

### Example

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x - y;
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## Multiplying

The multiplication operator (`*`) multiplies numbers.

### Example

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x * y;
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## Dividing

The division operator (`/`) divides numbers.

### Example

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x / y;
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## Remainder

The modulus operator (`%`) returns the division remainder.

### Example

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x % y;
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In arithmetic, the division of two integers produces a quotient and a remainder.
In mathematics, the result of a modulo operation is the remainder of an arithmetic division.

## Incrementing

The increment operator (`++`) increments numbers.

### Example

var x = 5;
x++;
var z = x;
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## Decrementing

The decrement operator (`--`) decrements numbers.

### Example

var x = 5;
x--;
var z = x;
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## Exponentiation

The exponentiation operator (`**`) raises the first operand to the power of the second operand.

### Example

var x = 5;
var z = x ** 2;          // result is 25
Try it Yourself »

x ** y produces the same result as `Math.pow(x,y)`:

### Example

var x = 5;
var z = Math.pow(x,2);   // result is 25
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## Operator Precedence

Operator precedence describes the order in which operations are performed in an arithmetic expression.

### Example

var x = 100 + 50 * 3;
Try it Yourself »

Is the result of example above the same as 150 * 3, or is it the same as 100 + 150?

Is the addition or the multiplication done first?

As in traditional school mathematics, the multiplication is done first.

Multiplication (`*`) and division (`/`) have higher precedence than addition (`+`) and subtraction (`-`).

And (as in school mathematics) the precedence can be changed by using parentheses:

### Example

var x = (100 + 50) * 3;
Try it Yourself »

When using parentheses, the operations inside the parentheses are computed first.

When many operations have the same precedence (like addition and subtraction), they are computed from left to right:

### Example

var x = 100 + 50 - 3;
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## JavaScript Operator Precedence Values

Pale red entries indicates ECMAScript 2015 (ES6) or higher.

Value Operator Description Example
20 ( ) Expression grouping (3 + 4)

19 . Member person.name
19 [] Member person["name"]
19 () Function call myFunction()
19 new Create new Date()

17 ++ Postfix Increment i++
17 -- Postfix Decrement i--

16 ++ Prefix Increment ++i
16 -- Prefix Decrement --i
16 ! Logical not !(x==y)
16 typeof Type typeof x

15 ** Exponentiation (ES7) 10 ** 2

14 * Multiplication 10 * 5
14 / Division 10 / 5
14 % Division Remainder 10 % 5

13 + Addition 10 + 5
13 - Subtraction 10 - 5

12 << Shift left x << 2
12 >> Shift right x >> 2
12 >>> Shift right (unsigned) x >>> 2

11 < Less than x < y
11 <= Less than or equal x <= y
11 > Greater than x > y
11 >= Greater than or equal x >= y
11 in Property in Object "PI" in Math
11 instanceof Instance of Object instanceof Array

10 == Equal x == y
10 === Strict equal x === y
10 != Unequal x != y
10 !== Strict unequal x !== y

9 & Bitwise AND x & y
8 ^ Bitwise XOR x ^ y
7 | Bitwise OR x | y
6 && Logical AND x && y
5 || Logical OR x || y
4 ? : Condition ? "Yes" : "No"

3 += Assignment x += y
3 += Assignment x += y
3 -= Assignment x -= y
3 *= Assignment x *= y
3 %= Assignment x %= y
3 <<= Assignment x <<= y
3 >>= Assignment x >>= y
3 >>>= Assignment x >>>= y
3 &= Assignment x &= y
3 ^= Assignment x ^= y
3 |= Assignment x |= y

2 yield Pause Function yield x
1 , Comma 5 , 6

Expressions in parentheses are fully computed before the value is used in the rest of the expression.

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